Pronouns!! There are a dizzying amount in Spanish, but they all have a specific job.
The prefix, pro- means in place of... so the pronoun takes the place of a noun, so that the noun does not become repetitive.
Personal Pronouns (Subject pronoun) - take the place of a person, the person doing the action in a sentence.
In Spanish they are: Yo- I Nosotros/nosotras- we Tú- you vosotros/vosotras- you (plural) él- he ellos- they (m/f) or just (m) ella-she ellas- they (f.) only usted - you (polite form) (él, ella, and usted) share the same verb form ustedes- you (pl.) polite form
*Pronouns can be omitted, left out, because the verb ending will signal who is doing what...
*Ustedes -plural form has 2 functions: 1. to address a group of people, you all... 2. to address a group of people politely (like French vous, if that helps.)
*in old Spanish grammar books, you may see the form Ud.(usted) as (Vd) No, it doesn't mean (venereal disease) as my high school students like to think. :D It is old Spanish for 'vuestra merced' -your honor, used to address the king or Pope. (vwehstrah mehrsaid)
Direct object pronouns (dop) 1. These pronouns receive the action of the verb. 2. It answers the question What?? What's being eaten? the boy = direct object The lion eats the boy. The lion eats him.(direct object pronoun)
In Spanish: El león come al niño- El león lo come- the lion eats him.
Rules: 1. Direct object pronoun goes before the verb. El león lo come (verb)
DOP- forms me- me nos- we te- you os- you (plural) lo- him,it los- them (m/f) la -her, it las (them (f. only)
1.Take the place of a person or thing (It answers the question to whom or for whom???)
2. Is used with verbs of speaking, telling, showing...
3.When used with a direct object pronoun (dop), it goes before the dop.(direct object pronoun)
4.It also changes its form!
5.If le, or les is used with lo, la, los, or las 6. le, or les -changes to se
You cannot say le lo - it will be se lo...
INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS forms: me- to/for me nos- to/for us te- to/for you os- to / for you le- to/for him, her les- to / for them (only these change to se, when followed by dop)
REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS These are look mostly the same, but its function is to refer back to the subject. So, it's an act you are doing to yourself.
me - myself nos- ourselves te- yourself os- yourselves se-himself, herself se-themselves Example- When you see a verb with these additional letters, they are reflexive pronouns lavarse- to wash oneself
Yo me lavo - I wash myself nosotros/nosotras nos lavamos- we wash ourselves tú te lavas- you wash yourself vosotros/vosotras os laváis- you (pl.) wash yourselves él se lava- he washes himself ellos se lavan- they wash themselves (m & f) ella se lava- she washes herself ellas se lavan- they wash themselves (f.) usted se lava- you (polite form) wash yourself ustedes(uds.) se lavan - they wash themselves
PREPOSITIONAL PRONOUNS- is used as the object of the preposition. 1. The prepositional pronoun comes after the preposition 2. They are exactly like the subject pronouns EXCEPT, for mí (me), ti- you and sí (mee) Forms: Mí- me nosotros/as-us ti- you vosotros/as- you (pl.) usted (ud.) you ustedes- you (pl.) polite form él-him, it ellos- them (m & f) ella- her, it ellas- them (f.) sí-yourself, himself, herself, itself sí- yourselves, themselves
*these pronouns combine, mí, ti, sí -combine with the preposition Con- with, and create...
conmigo- with me contigo- with you consigo- with yourself, himself, herself, themselves
*these forms do not have gender or number (singular /plural)