Latin is an inflected language. That means that the words have endings, and those endings tell us the function of a word in a sentence. Word order in Latin is not as important as in English. The endings signal the function of a word, so we know what the sentence is saying.
What is a declension?
A declension is a grouping or a category that nouns and adjectives are grouped into.
There are 5 declensions in Latin.
Each declension has 6 cases.
What is a case?A case gives us the ending and the ending signals the function of the word in a sentence. It tells you, if it is the subject or object of the verb.
The six cases are:
Nominative case- is the subject of the sentence.
Genitive case- is the case of possession, usually translated with the word ‘of’
Dative case- is the case of the indirect object. It answers the question to whom or for whom something is for.
Accusative case- the object of the verb. Answers the question What?
Ablative case-may be used with a preposition, to tell place where.
Vocative case- comes from the verb ‘vocāre’-to call. This case is used to call out to someone. For example, Oh Neptune, save me!